From Chancellor Hitler to Camp Liberation: See the Timeline of the Holocaust

From Chancellor Hitler to Camp Liberation: See the Timeline of the Holocaust

Timeline:

It’s easy to mix up the Holocaust timeline. Although far from a comprehensive timeline of the Holocaust and all that happened, this list of key historical events helps show the progression of persecution to mass murder and the subsequent liberation of concentration camps.

Holocaust Timeline:

The following details a list of key chronological events of the Holocaust, spanning from 1933 to 1945. 

1933

January 30: Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

March 22: Dachau concentration camp opens

April 1: Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses

April 7: Laws for Re-establishment of the Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service, university, and state positions

May 10: Public burnings of books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the state

July 14: Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship

1934

June 30-July 2: In the “Röhm Affair,” also known as “Night of the Long Knives,” Hitler orders the purge of the top leadership of the Nazi Party paramilitary formation, the SA (Sturmabteilungen; Assault Detachments). Pressured by German army commanders, whose support Hitler needed to become President of Germany upon Hindenburg’s impending death, Hitler used the SS to murder SA Chief of Staff Ernst Röhm and his top commanders.

August 2: German President von Hindenburg dies. With the support of the German armed forces, Hitler becomes President of Germany.

August 19: Hitler abolishes the office of President and declares himself Führer of the German Reich and People, in addition to his position as Chancellor. In this capacity as Führer, Hitler’s decisions are not bound by the laws of the state. Hitler now becomes the absolute dictator of Germany; there are no further legal or constitutional limits to his authority.

November-December: SS chief Himmler consolidates control over and de facto unifies the German state political police forces into the Gestapo office in Berlin under the authority of his deputy, Reinhard Heydrich.

December 10: SS chief Himmler creates the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps under the leadership of SS General Theodor Eicke. This move formalizes the SS takeover and centralization of the concentration camp system that had taken place in July 1934.

1935

September 15: “Nuremberg Laws”: Anti-Jewish racial laws enacted; Jews no longer considered German citizens; Jews could not marry Aryans, nor could they fly the German flag

November 15: Germany defines a “Jew”: Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew

1936

March 3: Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions

July: Sachsenhausen concentration camp opens

1937

July 15: Buchenwald concentration camp opens

1938

March 13: Anschluss (incorporation of Austria): All anti-Semitic decrees immediately applied in Austria

April 26: Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich

August 1: Adolf Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration

September 30: Munich Conference: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudentenland, previously western Czechoslovakia

October 5: Following request by Swiss authorities, Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J” to restrict Jews from immigrating to Switzerland

November 9-10: Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass): Anti-Jewish program in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen)

November 12: Decree forcing all Jews to transfer retail businesses to Aryan hands

November 15: All Jewish pupils expelled from German schools

December 12: One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht

1939

March 15: Germans occupy Czechoslovakia

September 1: Beginning of World War II: Germany invades Poland

October 28: First Polish ghetto established in Piotrkow

November 23: Jews in German-occupied Poland forced to wear an arm band or yellow star

1940

April 9: Germans occupy Denmark and southern Norway

May 7: Establishment of Lodz Ghetto

May 10: Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemberg, and France

May 20: Concentration camp established at Auschwitz

November 16: Establishment of Warsaw Ghetto

1941

January 21-26: Anti-Jewish riots in Romania, hundreds of Jews murdered

April 6: Germany attacks Yugoslavia and Greece, occupation follows

June 22: Germany invades the Soviet Union

September 28-29: 34,000 Jews massacred by Einsatzgruppen at Babi Yar outside Kiev

October: Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau)

December 8: Chelmno death camp begins operations

January 20: Wannsee Conference in Berlin: Plan is developed for “Final Solution”

March 17: Gassing of Jews begins in Belzec

May: Gassing of Jews begins Sobibor

June: Jewish partisan units established in the forests of Byelorussia and the Baltic states

Summer: Deportation of Jews to killing centers from Belgium, Croatia, France, the Netherlands, and Poland; armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachva, Mir, and Tuchin

Winter: Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to killing centers; Jewish partisan movement organized in forests near Lublin

1943

March: Liquidation of Krakow ghetto

April 19: Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins

Summer: Armed resistance by Jews in Bedzin, Bialystok, Czestochowa, Lvov, and Tarnow ghettos

Fall: Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna, and Riga

October 14: Uprising in Sobibor

October-November: Rescue of the Danish Jewry

1944

March 19: Germany occupies Hungary

May 15: Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews

July 24: Russians liberate Majdanek

October 7: Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up

November: Last Jews deported from Terezin to Auschwitz

1945

January 17: Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death marches

January 27: Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof

April 6-10: Death march of inmates of Buchenwald

April 15: Liberation of Bergen Belsen by British Army

April: Liberation of Nordhausen, Ohrdruf, Gunskirchen, Ebensee and Dachau by American Army

May 5: Liberation of Mauthausen and Gusen by American Army

 Project done by: St. Louis Kaplan Feldman Holocaust Museum

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